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The Anthropology Department at Colorado College recommends that students use the style guide established by the American Anthropological Association (hereafter, the AAA ). Most questions about how to cite, what to capitalize or italicize, etc., are found in the AAA guide which forms the basis of the department's document on style. The CC Anthropology Department Style Guide for Anthropology Papers, however, adds a few source citations to the ones listed by the AAA, provides specific guidelines for paper formatting (margins, font size, pagination, etc.), and gives below some specific instructions for acknowledging sources in the body of your paper.
The complete text of the AAA Style Guide can be found online at:
The AAA Style Guide uses The Chicago Manual of Style and Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary. This guide is an outline of Chicago and AAA style rules used for all books and journals edited and produced in-house by the AAA Publications Department. Where no rule is present on this list, follow The Chicago Manual of Style or Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. In Webster's, use first spelling if there is a choice, and use American spellings, not British.
Acknowledgment in text:
Many anthropological journals use a similar system for in-text references. However, they may vary a bit from one subdiscipline to another. The style employed by the journal, American Anthropologist, is generally accepted within the department, but you should check with your individual professor. Be consistent throughout your paper. All direct quotes -- and this includes photocopies of tables, figures, etc. -- must be acknowledged precisely, including the page from which they are taken. The acknowledgment is simply the author, date, page number. Example:
"A captive man was given a wife, but after several months or a year, he was ceremonially killed. While being tortured, the victim was permitted to pelt his captors with stones and to boast of his courage" (Steward and Faron 1959:331).
NOTE: Quotation marks immediately follow last word quoted, but punctuation follows reference.
You may sometimes want to quote a quotation, in which case you must mention both original source, and source which you consulted. This is partly a protective device. It not only admits that you did not see the original, but it also announces that you are not responsible for errors made by the source which you did consult. (For future reference, it is always preferable to hunt down the original yourself. This may not be practical for some undergraduate papers, however). Example:
NOTE: The bibliography would list only Williams, S.C., Early Travels in the Tennessee Country. Johnson City, Tenn: The Watauga Press, 1928. Also, as in the quote above, leave three dots to indicate words not quoted, and enclose words added to a quote in brackets.
Footnotes: Keep them to a minimum, and place them at the bottom of each page.
Use the common anthropological style. Examples to solve most problems will be found on subsequent pages under the section titled References. Mention in your bibliography only those sources which you have consulted. List nothing which is merely referred to in a consulted work. Order is alphabetical by author, chronological for a single author.
Where is the book published? This again is simple, although it may look complicated. Below is a characteristic example of the problem:
Downs, James F. 1972 The Navajo. New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Atlanta, Dallas, Montreal, Toronto, London, Sydney: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.
The publisher is bragging about how many offices it has. Cite only one city, usually the most important city. Which city do you cite? It depends on where you are writing the paper. If in the U.S., it would be New York; if in Canada, Toronto; if anywhere in Europe, London; if in the Pacific, Sydney; if elsewhere, take your pick. Do you list the state as well as the city? That's a judgment call. List the state only if necessary for clarity. Books are published by numerous presses both in Cambridge, MA and in Cambridge, England. If you just saw the city of Cambridge listed in the bibliography would you be able to tell the difference? When in doubt, specify.
General formatting instructions:
Font Size: Your paper should be printed or typed in an 11 or 12 point font.
Print Quality: Make sure the final print copy is dark and easy to read.
Paper Size: 8 l/2 x 11 inches
Margins: All margins (top, bottom, left, right) are
1 inch for regular course papers.
Pagination: Preliminary Pages: Includes index, table of contents, list of tables, graphs, illustrations, and preface. Use small Roman numbers (i, ii, iii, etc.). Title page is page i, but the number does not appear.
Text: Use Arabic numbers (l, 2, 3, etc.) at top center or top right, except on pages carrying major heading, or first page of chapter in which case place number at bottom center. Every page to be numbered consecutively, including -- tables, graphs, illustrations, bibliography etc.
Title Page: The title page should be centered. It should include the following information: title, author, date. course title, and instructor's name. For thesis, please consult specific guidelines.
NOTE: Don't forget to sign the Honor Code!
Per Webster's and Chicago Manual of Style.
Events (Chicago 7.65)
Fields of study
Figures, tables, appendices (exception to Chicago)
Names of organizations, committees, associations, conferences (Chicago 7.47-7.59)
Place names (Chicago 7.34)
Race/ethnicity (Chicago 7.32-7.33)
Titles of works (Chicago 7.123)
Spell out numbers in the following instances:
Age: 24 years old, 11 months old, a 34-year-old woman, in his thirties
Dates: ninth century, 20th century; 1960-65; 1960s; the sixties; October 6, 1966; April 1993 (no comma); A.D. 1200; 1000 B.C. (caps); April 18, not April 18th
Fractions: Hyphenate as both adj. and noun: a two-thirds majority, two-thirds of those present
Ordinals: Use nd/rd: 22nd rather than 22d, 23rd rather than 23d
Series: When dealing with more than one series of quantities, use numerals: "The first shape had 4 sides, the second had 7, and the third had 3." Also, when small numbers occur in a group with large numbers, set them all in numerals for consistency.
Use numerals for numbered items such as parts of a book: chapter 5, part 2, page 35, volume 4.
Times: 2:00 p.m., noon
Inclusive numbers: Use all numbers except in year spans: 893-897; 1,023-1,045; but 1989-92
Words as words
Initial letter: OK to change case of initial letter of quote to fit sentence without using brackets.
Spelling/punctuation corrections: Leave all spellings and punctuation alone in quotes; use [sic] if necessary, and give an explanation in text if absolutely necessary.
Yes and No
Format for block quotations/excerpts
AAA Reference Style is as follows, punctuation/italics as indicated.
A. Single-author book
Castles, Stephen 1984 Here for Good. London: Pluto Press.
B. Coauthored book
Bonacich, Edna, and John Modell 1980 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.
C. Author, with others
Bonacich, Edna, with Mark Smith and Kathy Hunt 1980 The Economic Basis of Ethnic Solidarity: Small Business in the Japanese American Community. Berkeley: University of California Press.
D1. One author, more than one reference
Kroeber, A. L. 1939 Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North American. Berkeley: University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 38. 1948 Anthropology. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
D2. One author, more than one reference, same year of publication
Gallimore, Ronald 1983a xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. 1983b xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
E. Work accepted for publication
Spindler, George In press In Pursuit of a Dream: The Experience of Central Americans Recently Arrived in the U.S. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
F1. Work submitted for publication, unpublished work
Spindler, George n.d. Education and Reproduction among Turkish Families in Sydney. Department of Education, University of Sydney, unpublished MS.
F2. Unpublished, dated work
Earnshaw, Peggy L., Galen L. Goldsmith, Virginia L. Maurer and Steven L. Miles 1973 A Study of San Miguel del Vado. Paper for Anthropology 414, Ethnohistory of the Southwest. The Colorado College.
G. Chapter in book with editor(s)
Rohlen, Thomas P. 1981 Education: Policies and Prospects. In Koreans in Japan: Ethnic Conflicts and Accommodation. C. Lee and George DeVos, eds. Pp. 182-222. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Price, T. Douglas 1993 Issues in Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Research. In Hunting and Animal Exploitation in the Later Palaeolithic and Mesolithic of Eurasia. Gail Larsen Peterkin, Harvey M. Bricker, and Paul Mellars, eds. Pp. 241-244. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 4. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association.
H. Editor as author
Diskin, Martin, ed. 1983 Trouble in Our Backyard: Central America in the Eighties. New York: Pantheon Books.
I. Article in journal (If page numbering does not continue throughout volume, include issue number in parentheses after volume number.)
Moll, Luis C. 1986 Writing as Communication: Creating Strategic Learning Environments for Students. Theory into Practice 25:102-108.
J. Article in journal theme issue
Rutherford, Danilyn 1996 Of Birds and Gifts: Reviving Tradition on an Indonesian Frontier. In Resisting Identities. Theme issue. Cultural Anthropology 11:577-616.
K. Book in a series
Bartlett, H. H. 1973 The Labors of the Datoe and Other Essays on the Batak of Asakan (North Sumatra). Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia, 15. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
L. One volume in a multivolume work
Clutton-Brock, Juliet, and Caroline Grigson, eds. 1983 Animals and Archaeology, vol. 1. Hunters and Their Prey. BAR International Series, 163. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
Trueba, Henry T. 1986 Review of Beyond Language: Social and Cultural Factors in Schooling Language Minority Students. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 17:255-259.
Kamehameha Schools 1977 Results of the Minimum Objective System, 1975-1976. Technical Report No. 77. Honolulu, HA: Kamehameha Schools, Kamehameha Elementary Education Program.
O. Ph.D. dissertation or master's thesis
D'Amato, John 1986 "We Cool, Tha's Why": A Study of Personhood and Place in a Class of Hawaiian Second Graders. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii.
P. Presented paper
Shimahara, Nobuo K. 1983 Mobility and Education of Buraku: The Case of a Japanese Minority. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago, November 18.
Gennep, A. van 1960 The Rites of Passage. M. Vizedom and M. Caffee, trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
R. Subsequent edition
Gallimore, Ronald 1986 Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. In Handbook of Research on Teaching. 3rd edition. M. C. Wittrock, ed. Pp. 119-162. New York: Macmillan.
S. Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
Reinhold, Robert 1986 Illegal Aliens Hoping to Claim Their Dreams. New York Times, November 3: A1, A10.
T. Personal communication (including e-mail, listserv, and newsgroup messages)
Should be cited in text, with specific date, but not in references. Example: "Horace Smith claims (letter to author, July 12, 1993) that . . ."
U. Court case
Should be cited in text but not in references. Example: (Doe v. U.Mich., 721 F. Supplement 852 ). See Chicago 16.174 for details.
V. Internet document
Use this format (the "URL") for documents obtained at FTP or Telnet sites (ftp://...), WWW sites (http://), and gopher sites (gopher://):
Rheingold, Howard 1992 A Slice of Life in My Virtual Community. Electronic document. ftp://well.sf.ca.us/serv/ftp/pub/eff/papers/cyber/.
W. No author publication
Anonymous 1975 Adobe 1(2). Publication of Centennial High School, San Luis, Colorado. OR Adobe 1975 vol. 1, no. 2. Publication of Centennial High School, San Luis, Colorado.
X. Archival material
Woodward, Charles H. n.d. Manuscript notes on Woodard Textile Collection, Colorado State Historical Society Museum, Denver. OR Blackmore Papers. New Mexico State Records Center and Archives. Santa Fe, New Mexico. OR Archives of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe (AASF) Arroyo Hondo, Books of Baptism, Marriage, Burial; Taos, Books of Baptism and Burial (Microfilm Roll M41)
Y. Government documents (Turabian has several examples,
all of which are acceptable)
Abbreviations: Do not use in narrative text in most
cases (see Chicago 14.31).
Comma, series: Use a series comma--in a series of 3
or more items, a comma is used between the next-to-last item and the and,
as follows: The umbrella was red, blue, and white.
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